The Dickens Daguerreotype Portraits: Part 2

During the 1990s two unique photographic portraits previously unknown to scholars, of Charles Dickens and his wife Catherine, came to light. Both were taken by John E. Mayall using the early daguerreotype process. I shall describe the two close-up daguerreotype images.

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Charles Dickens. Daguerreotype by J.J.E. Mayall, c.1853 (Gordon Trewinnard Collection; photo courtesy the estate of Gordon Trewinnard).

The image of Charles shows him in profile, with a moustache but no beard, as with the stereoscopic photograph. The daguerreotype was discovered in 1999, and was previously unknown, in any medium, by historians. In this daguerreotype Dickens appears very much as he does in the stereoscopic image described previously, and thought to date from 1851 or 1852. His hair is similar, the cut of his moustache, and his jacket.[32]

Catherine Dickens. Close-up of daguerreotype by J.J.E. Mayall (Gordon Trewinnard Collection; photo courtesy the estate of Gordon Trewinnard).
Catherine Dickens, c.1852-55 (Gordon Trewinnard Collection; photo courtesy the estate of Gordon Trewinnard).

The daguerreotype of Catherine, described in 1997 as ‘newly discovered’, was also previously unknown in any form. The image of Catherine is arranged differently from the image of Dickens in his close-up profile portrait by Mayall. She faces to our right, and is in semi-profile. The image is much smaller on the plate, with much more space above the head and to the right. Colour has been applied to the original daguerreotype. This was done in Mayall’s studio, and the process was described in 1853:

‘… we were courteously invited into the colouring room, a tiny closet in which two damsels were busily at work … The colours used by them were all dry minerals, and were laid on with the fine point of a dry brush; pointed between the lips; and left to become dry before using. A little rubbing caused these tints to adhere to the minute pores upon the plate.’[33]

Crayon daguerreotypes

Both portraits are vignetted, with the image dissolving to white around the edges of the subject. This technique was known as the ‘crayon daguerreotype’. Dickens himself was the subject of such artists’ crayon portraits, as shown below in a later example, after which the ‘crayon portrait’ vignetted daguerreotypes were named.

A later vignetted portrait of Henry Morley (1822-94), co-author of ‘Photography’ in Household Words, photographer unknown. Wills and Morley described Mayall’s ‘crayon daguerreotype’ vignetting process (online source, 2011).[34]
An artist’s crayon portrait of Dickens, from a photograph (online source, 2011).[35]

The ‘Crayon Daguerreotype’ was patented in the USA by John Adam Whipple of Boston.[36] The process was also used by Marcus Root of Philadelphia, to whom Mayall had sold his studio in 1846 before returning to England, so most likely Mayall had been using the technique years earlier. In its simple form it comprised a white card with an aperture, which was held between the lens and the subject. The catalogue of the Great Exhibition of 1851 lists Mayall as exhibiting Crayon Daguerreotypes.[37] Mayall’s vignetting technique was initially produced by the method of fixing a zinc disc on a glass, and exposing the daguerreotype plate to the sun with this arrangement on top of it, thereby ‘burning out’ the borders of the plate – then removing the zinc mask and exposing the subject.[38] The technique was described by Mayall in The Athenaeum.[39] This was evidently soon superseded by a mechanical arrangement, which was described in Household Words:

‘Among ingenious contrivances we ought not to omit to rank Mr Mayall’s very neat method of producing what are called crayon portraits in daguerreotype. His plan is to place between the sitter and the camera a revolving plate, having a hole cut in the middle of it, from which there proceed broad rays as of the sun upon a signboard. The result is a picture upon which the head is engraved with unusual distinctness, and the bust is gradually shaded down into the general colour of the plate, so that the effect is that of a crayon portrait.’[40]

Mayall patented the mechanical version.[41] Colin Axon, one-time owner of the Catherine daguerreotype, has dated the portrait as after July 1852, the month of design registration of the numbered clasp that holds the case closed. It is not known whether these two portraits were taken at the same sitting. The Quarterly Review (1854) reprinted a quote from the Art Journal:

‘We must admit that we have never seen anything in photographic portraits so truly artistic; they have all the force and beauty of an exquisite mezzotinto engraving – hence the appropriate name ‘crayon portraits’, by which Mr. Mayall designates them. We saw in his Gallery a score or two of portraits of men whom we know personally; each one was the man himself – a living likeness, such as the most skillful painter could never set before us; they are as far superior to the multitude of photographic caricatures one sees in every great thoroughfare, as a delicate engraving on steel or copper is to a coarse wood-cut.’[42]

The Athenaeum declared:

‘Mr. Mayall’s pictures are much distinguished for the beauty of their execution, the tint being harmonious and neutral, the various textures of flesh, hair, drapery, &c., discriminated with a painter’s taste, and an entire absence of a certain commonness of aspect which has tended hitherto to disparage the art.’[43]

Daguerreotype camera (online source, 2011).

Dickens declines to sit again for Mayall

In July 1856, Mayall announced the opening of a new gallery for the ‘Exhibition of Photographic Portraits of Eminent Individuals’ with a catalogue; the ‘1853-4’ photograph of Dickens would be included, but Mayall wanted a more up-to-date one.[44] In October 1856, Dickens declined to have a further photograph taken:

‘Tavistock House Saturday Fourth October 1856.
Dear Sir, I am much obliged to you for your kind letter. I fear it will not be in my power to sit, – I have so much to do and such a disinclination to multiply my “counterfeit presentments”, – but I am not the less sensible of your valuable offer. I shall hope, about Christmas time, to shew you some dramatic groupes [sic] here, which you may perhaps feel an interest in presenting. In which case, I am sure that all concerned (including myself) will be delighted to give you the opportunity.
Faithfully yours, Charles Dickens.
J.E. Mayall Esquire’[45]

It isn’t known whether anything came of Dickens’s suggestion for a Christmas group portrait. Despite this refusal, an advertisement in Peter Parley’s Annual: a Christmas and New Year’s present for young people, dated 1857 (so presumably published during the late months of 1856), included an advertisement for the ‘Exhibition of Photographic Portraits of Eminent Individuals’ which included a list of names and the statement: ‘during the past season Mr. Mayall has had the honour of sittings from the distinguished persons on this page’ … and Charles Dickens, Esq. was included on the list.[46] Presumably Mayall had anticipated an acceptance from Dickens.

An added beard

Charles Dickens. Engraving c.1856-58 (Stephen Herbert Collection).

Mayall’s stereoscopic daguerreotype of Charles was evidently the basis for another engraving, in which the engraver has added a beard and simplified the back of the chair. Perhaps this updated revision was made as result of Dickens declining Mayall’s request for a new photograph to be taken. The bearded version was reproduced in 1858 as a plate published with the Illustrated News of the World; one of a collection of large, high quality engravings of important persons, all taken from photographs, many of which were by Mayall.[47] The image has been much reproduced, with some versions laterally reversed.[48]

Mayall had supplied prints from negatives (indicating that the Dickens image, if it was indeed from a daguerretype must have been copied by Mayall to make a negative) to a Mr. Tallis, for the purposes of arranging the Illustrated News of the World engravings. Not all prints were returned and Tallis went bankrupt in 1861. The prints were acquired by someone who made copies and sold them. Dickens sued, and was awarded damages.[49] If Mayall’s print of Dickens was amongst those not returned to him, this may have been the source of some examples of that particular Dickens photograph. In the 1900 Harmsworth’s Magazine article, the contributor writes,

‘When we come to the Dickens portraits of the late forties and early fifties, it is an entirely different Dickens that we are confronted with. It is no longer the sparkling, triumphant Boz to whom honour and success are delightful novelties; it is the world-famous Charles Dickens indeed, but it is plain that the fire and energy are wearing the man out before his time. It is at this period, too, that the recognised portraits begin to contradict one another. Dickens now wore a beard, so generally described as “grizzly” by his contemporaries. His hair, once so luxurious, is now thin and straggling. Almost the only features that recall the brilliant young man are the large eyes and the lines of humour around the mouth. Even these you do not find in all the portraits. Look, for instance, at the photograph by Mayall, taken about 1850. Could anything be more unlike the Dickens of Maclise? Note the forced attitude, the narrow, almost sinister, eyes, the indescribably “foreign” look of the whole portrait.’[50]

Frontispiece of Clever Boys of Our Time, 1861 edition (Stephen Herbert Collection).

Despite this unflattering description Dickens was by now firmly established as a permanent national hero, a figure for young people to emulate, and his story was included in Clever Boys of Our Time, and how they became Famous Men. A tipped-in photographic copy of a cropped version of this engraving appeared in the third edition of 1861, in the illuminated frontispiece.[51]

Catherine Dickens (date not known). Cabinet card by Mayall (Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library).[52]

Portraits by Mayall, after the daguerreotypes

At a later date, Mayall – this might have been J.J.E. Mayall himself, or one of his employees – took a full-length portrait of Catherine standing. This was not a daguerreotype, but a cabinet card photograph printed from a glass negative; the technology of photography had evolved.[53] Sydney Dickens (1847-1872) was also photographed by Mayall. A year after Sydney died, Catherine wrote to her youngest son Edward – ‘I wish so much that I could send you a photo of my poor darling … Mr. Mayall has unfortunately lost the negative.’[54]

Charles Dickens, c.1861. Harmsworth’s Monthly Pictorial Magazine, 1900.

Another profile portrait

Dickens apparently disliked having his portrait made in profile,[55] but at least one other such photograph was taken. His head is in full profile, but unlike the earlier Mayall daguerreotype his body is turned towards the camera. The reproduction, in Harmsworth’s Monthly Pictorial Magazine (1900) dates the photograph to 1861, the year of Great Expectations. The photographic process used for this image is not known; it was not a daguerreotype. Many more photographs of Charles would be taken over the years, more than 80 all told, by many different photographers, until shortly before his death in 1870.[56] As for the photographers who took the images that form the subject of this monograph:

Richard Beard

Though Beard was describing himself in 1851 as a ‘photographic artist’ and exhibited at the Great Exhibition, there is little evidence that he was himself an extensive practitioner. The surviving Daguerreotypes attributed to him are largely the works of others. Beard’s interest in photography declined and by 1861 he was describing himself as a ‘coal merchant’ and later a ‘medical galvanist’. Beard died in Hampstead in 1885.

Antoine Claudet

Claudet was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1853, and ‘photographer-in-ordinary’ to the Queen. He was fascinated with the possibilities of moving photographic images, and patented several stereoscopic devices. Antoine Claudet continued as a portrait photographer until his death in 1867.

John J.E. Mayall

John Jabez Edwin Mayall also produced photographs by many processes and in a wide variety of formats, including life-size daguerreotype portraits. He eventually moved to Brighton, and had a long life as a successful photographic artist. Mayall continued at times to use vignetting in his portraits, as did many other photographers. He died in 1901.

Stephen Herbert, Hastings August 2021.

Stephen Herbert is a Visiting Research Fellow in the Visual and Material Culture Research Centre, Department of Art, Design and Architecture, Kingston University, London.

Next time: Moving Image Discs in the 1890s: Announcing a discovery in the USA.

Appendix: The Dickens Daguerreotype Inventory

1) Charles Dickens. No beard or moustache. Attributed to J.J.E. Mayall.
Date: 1849-51
Original: location not known.
Photographic image: location of possible 19th-century photographic print not known. Reproduced in Priestly (1961).
Engraving: Eaton. Charles Dickens: Rare Print Collection (1900).

2) Charles Dickens. No beard or moustache. Antoine Claudet.
Date: 1849-51
Description: Daguerreotype in arched gilt mount with morocco case.
Original: the original daguerreotype is in the collection of the Library Company of Philadelphia, Print Department, Cased photos [94383.D] Catalogue entry:
Title: Mr. Charles Dickens [graphic] / Mr. Claudet, 107 Regent St., Quadrant.
Claudet, A. (Antoine), 1797-1867 photographer.
Three quarter length pose of Dickens standing with his right hand in his pocket and his left hand , holding his gloves, resting on an urn (sic). Daguerreotype; ½ plate. (A half plate daguerreotype measures approx 5.5 x 4.25 inches.)
Pad: red velvet. Mat: elliptical. Case: leather. Gold stamped on front: Seal of Great Britain with photographer’s imprint: Mr. Claudet, 107 Regent St. Quadrant. Title from paper label pasted onto recto. Acquired by Charlotte Irene King Sumner, granddaughter of Rev. Demetrius P. Calliphronas, from his daguerreotype collection, June 21, 1940. [Author’s note: The case bears the 107 Regent Street address, so this portrait cannot pre-date May, 1851. Rev. Demetrius P. Calliphronas (c.1803-1895), born in Greece, was a vicar in Norfolk, England, in the mid-to-late 19th-century.]
Engraving: None known.
Provenance: The early provenance of the surviving daguerreotype is not known.

3) Charles Dickens. No beard or moustache. Antoine Claudet.
Date: 1851-52
Description: Three quarter length pose. Photographic image of a very similar daguerreotype to the previous listed example, and taken at the same sitting, by Claudet.
Original: Location not known.
Engraving: Eaton. Charles Dickens: Rare Print Collection (1900).
Catalogue entry: Claudet, A. (Antoine), 1797-1867 photographer. : Mr. Charles Dickens [graphic] /Mr. Claudet, 107 Regent Street., Quadrant. London, ca. 1852.
I photograph : daguerreotype ; ½ plate.
Photographic image: widely available. Engraving: several different engravings known.

4) Charles Dickens. Moustache, no beard. Daguerreotype by J.J.E. Mayall.
Date: 1853-54.
Description: Profile vignetted image. Daguerreotype mounted as oval within gilt mount; lower portion of morocco case with photographer’s gilt sunburst credit stamp Mayall 224 Regent St. & 433 West Strand London. Image 3¾ x 2¾ in. (oval), case 5½ x 4⅝ in.
Original: Previously in the Gordon Trewinnard Collection.
Photographic image: Christie’s catalogue. Wikipedia.
Engraving: None known.
Provenance: The early provenance of the profile daguerreotype is not known. It was found amongst the possessions of collector Charles Cloney, an Irish recluse whose life could have come from a Dickens novel. Brought up in a Dublin orphanage he was sent out with money to buy two dozen canes, presumably to be used to whip the boys, but absconded to London.
Throughout his life he used variations of his name and switched addresses many times. Cloney had collected photographs for half a century when he died in December 1999, living in conditions of poverty. He was known to dealers but had not attended specialist auctions, and was unaware of the huge increase in value of many early photographs. His collection of news cuttings, engravings based on photographs, and index cards – which did not include any information on the profile Dickens daguerreotype – was auctioned by Christie’s in the same sale as the photograph. Cloney had no known relatives, and the proceeds of his estate went to the Treasury.[57]

5) Charles Dickens. Moustache, no beard. One half of a stereoscopic image (see 5a). J.J.E. Mayall.
Photographic image: Wikipedia.
Engraving: Illustrated Times, 1 Dec 1855. Engraving (with added beard): Supplement, Illustrated News of the World (London) 9 October 1858. Engraving (with added beard): ‘The Novelist of Christmas’, Harmsworth’s Monthly Pictorial Magazine Vol. 3, 1900, p. 375.

5a) Charles Dickens. Full stereoscopic image.
Date: c.1853-54.
Description: Three-quarter view, seated. Moustache, no beard. Paper copy from a stereoscopic daguerreotype by J.J.E. Mayall.
Original: Location not known.
Provenance: Photographic print is in the Charles Dickens Museum, London. Age and acquisition details not known.

6) Catherine Dickens. Daguerreotype by J.J.E. Mayall.
Date: 1852-55.
Description: semi-profile, Vignetted, with colouring. Daguerreotype in oval frame. 3¼ x 4¼ inches, gilt protective mat and glass measure 4 x 5 inches. The morocco case measures 4½ x 5¼ by ¾ inches. No. ‘434’ scratched onto back of plate. Front of plate bears impressed mark; a square containing the number 20 (indicating a high quality French plate). Push-button catch bears the text ‘REG JULY 20 1852’. Rear of case gilt stamped with Mayall’s studio details and decorative scrolls:
22 Regent St. (Argyll Place) Mayall & 433 West Strand.
Copies: Charles Dickens Museum.
Original: previously in the collection of Gordon Trewinnard, United Kingdom.
Photographic image: Wikipedia. Reproduced as a colour image in The Dickensian, Vol. 93, 1997.
Engraving: none known.
Provenance: Original was in the collection of Colin Axon, United Kingdom. Acquired from a dealer, previous provenance not known. Acquired by Gordon Trewinnard at auction, 2012. Subsequently sold.


This was a provisional bibliography compiled in 2011, and researchers are advised to check originals before citing.

Allen, Michael. ‘A sketch of the Life’, in David Paroissien (ed.), A Companion to Charles Dickens. Blackwell Companions to Literature and Culture 51 (Blackwell Publishing, 2008).
Axon, Colin. ‘The Daguerreotype of Catherine Dickens’, The Dickensian, Vol. 93, 1997.
Burns, John. ‘Irish recluse left fortune in photos’, The Sunday Times, 1 December 2002.
Chesterton, G.K. Appreciations and Criticisms of the Work of Charles Dickens (J.M. Dent & Sons, 1911).
Christie’s South Kensington, London. Catalogue, Photographs: Sale 9087, Lot 82, 11 May 2001.
Cruikshank, George. ‘Photographic phenomena, or the new school of portrait painting’, in Laman Blanchard (ed.), George Crucishank’s Omnibus (Tilt and Bogue, 1842).
Darwin, Bernard (ed.), The Dickens Advertiser: A Collection of Advertisements in the original parts of novels by Charles Dickens (Elkin Mathews & Marrot, 1930). Republished by Literary Licensing, 2013.
Dickens, Charles, Madeline House and Graham Storey. Charles Dickens: The Letters 1856-1858, Vol. 8 (Clarendon Press, 1965-[1997]).
Eaton, Seymour (ed.). Charles Dickens, rare print collection (Kennedy & Co., 1900).
Editorial [Catherine Dickens daguerreotype by Mayall], The Dickensian, Vol. 93, 1997.
Greenwood, Grace. Haps and Mishaps of a Tour in Europe (Ticknor, Reed and Fields, 1853/54).
Harper’s New Monthly Magazine Vol. 12 No. 69, February 1856.
Humphrey’s Journal Vol. 5 No.1, February 1853 (letter, 30 December 1852).
Humphrey’s Journal 15 March 1853 (item by Helios) [cited by a previous author, but not checked].
Illustrated News of the World and National Portrait Gallery of Eminent Personages. Chiefly from photographs by Mayall, engraved on steel, by D.J. Pound, with memoirs by E. Walford and others. (London, January 1858–October 1863). Supplement, 9 October 1858.
Illustrated Times, 1 December 1855.
Johnson, Edgar. Charles Dickens: his tragedy and triumph (Allen Lane, 1977).
Johnson, Joseph. Clever Boys of Our Time, and how they became famous Men (Drayton & Co., 1861).
Kitton, Fred G. ‘Charles Dickens and his less familiar portraits’, The Magazine of Art, Vol. II, Part 1, June 1888; pp. 284-288. Part 2, July 1888.
La Lumière Revue de la Photographie, No. 5, 3 February 1855. Item concerning stereoscopic portraits by Mayall, including Dickens.
Monteiro, Stephen. ‘Veiling the Mechanical Eye: Antoine Claudet and the Spectacle of Photography in Victorian London’. Interdisciplinary Studies in the Long Nineteenth Century, 7 (2008).
National Magazine, The. Vol. VI, July-December 1852. An engraving of Charles Dickens was included. Reprinted as The National Magazine, Devoted to Literature, Art, and Religion (Kessinger Publishing LLC, 2010).
Nayder, Lillian. The Other Dickens: A Life of Catherine Hogarth. (Cornell University Press, Bristol University Press, c.2011).
‘The Novelist of Christmas’, The Harmsworth Monthly Pictorial Magazine, 1900.
Official Description and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the works of industry of all nations, 1851 (lists Mayall as exhibiting Crayon Daguerreotypes).
‘One of the London Sights’, Humphrey’s Journal Vol. 1, 1852 (Regent Street Studio) reprinted from Liverpool Mail. [Cited by a previous author, but not checked.]
Oost, Regina B. ‘“More Like Than Life”: Painting, Photography, and Dickens’s Bleak House’, in Stanley Friedman, Edward Guiliano and Michael Timko (eds), Dickens Studies Annual (AMS Press, 2001).
‘Our Weekly Gossip’ [court case], The Athenaeum No. 1,791, 22 February 1872. Also March and May 1872.
Peter Parley’s Annual: A Christmas and New Year’s present for young people (Darton & Co., 1857).
Photographic News for Amateur Photographers, 27 July 1888.
‘Photographic Piracy’ (Mayall v. Higby), Photographic News 21 February 1862. (re. Illustrated News of the World), also in The Athenaeum, February, March, May 1862.
Priestley, J.B. Charles Dickens: a pictorial biography (Thames & Hudson, 1961).
Reynolds, Leonie L., and Arthur T. Gill. ‘The Mayall Story’, History of Photography, Vol. 9 No. 2., April-June 1985. See also ‘The Mayall Story – a postscript’, History of Photography Vol. 11, 1987.
Simkin, David. ‘The Daguerreotype Process’, Sussex PhotoHistory website.
Slater, Michael. ‘Catherine Dickens in the Early 1850s: A Newly-Discovered Image’, The Dickensian, Vol. 93, 1997.
Solly, Henry Shaen. Life of Henry Morley, LL.D. (Edward Arnold, 1898).
Stapp, William F. Robert Cornelius: Portraits from the dawn of photography (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1983).
Timbs, John. The Year-book of Facts in Science and Art (David Bogue, 1851).
Wallis, W. George. The Exhibition of Art-industry in Paris, 1855 (Virtue & Co., 1855).
Weeden, Brenda. ‘Photography at the Polytechnic’, in The Education of the Eye: History of the Royal Polytechnic Institution 1828-1881 (Granta, 2008).
Wills, Henry William, and Henry Morley. ‘Photography’, Household Words, 19 March 1853.
[Wills, Henry William, and Henry Morley?]. ‘The Stereoscope’, Household Words Vol. 8 No. 181, 10 September 1853.
Xavier, Andrew. ‘The face of Charles Dickens: Portraits of the great author’. Talk given at Gresham College, London, 24 November 2005.
Xavier, Andrew. ‘Portraits, busts and photographs of Dickens,’ in Paul Schlike (ed.), The Oxford Reader’s Companion to Dickens (Oxford University Press, 2000).

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Notes and References

  1. I believe that J.J.E. Mayall’s establishment at 224 Regent Street, the address of which is included on the case stamp of the profile daguerreotype, was opened in July 1852, not 1853 as stated in the Christie’s catalogue of 2001. [return to text]
  2. William Henry Wills and Henry Morley, ‘Photography’, Household Words 19 March 1853. [return to text]
  3. Henry Shaen Solly, The Life of Henry Morley, LL.D. (E. Arnold, 1898). [return to text]
  4. Crayon and chalk portraits of Dickens, some based on photographs, include an earlier example by Samuel Lawrence. [return to text]
  5. US Patent No. 6,059, Granted 23 January 1849. [Patented in 1849 by Mayall’s former business partner from Philadelphia, Marcus Root, according to Colin Axall. Not verified.] [return to text]
  6. Exhibit No. 291.12, v 1, Class 10, United Kingdom. See the Photographic Exhibitions in Britain 1839-1865 website. [return to text]
  7. The Year-book of Facts in Science and Art (David Brogue) had two different descriptions of the process, in 1851 and 1854. [return to text]
  8. The Athenaeum No. 1,197. A piece on Mayall’s process appeared in the October 1853 issue of the Art Journal, commenting that his crayon portraits were ‘as superior to the general run of daguerreotypes as a coarse wood cut is to a delicate engraving on steel or copper’. The November issue included a note: ‘The mistake in arranging this sentence is obvious. We should certainly be the last to prefer a coarse wood cut to a more perfect specimen of engraving…’ [return to text]
  9. Wills and Morley, ‘Photography’, p. 60. [return to text]
  10. British Patent granted January 1853. [return to text]
  11. ‘Opinions of the Press’, Quarterly Review Vol. 95 (1854). [return to text]
  12. Quoted in Peter Parley’s Annual: A Christmas and New Year’s present for young people (Darton & Co., 1859). [return to text]
  13. Details from Charles Dickens, Madeline House and Graham Storey, Charles Dickens: The letters: 1856-1858, Vol. 8, p. 199. [return to text]
  14. Charles Dickens: The Letters, Vol. 8, p. 199. [return to text]
  15. Peter Parley’s Annual (1857), p. 17. [return to text]
  16. Supplement published with the Illustrated News of the World, 1858. [return to text]
  17. In most cases, original daguerreotypes were laterally reversed, as in a mirror. However Richard Beard (and others) used a camera that was fitted with a special mirror rather than a lens, and hence the resulting images were the right way round. In some cases, daguerreotype portraits were reversed by the engraver when being reproduced in print. It was also possible to copy daguerreotypes, and during this procedure the image could be laterally reversed. Due to the complexity of this situation, in this monograph I have not generally made reference to the left-right reversal with regard to particular images. [return to text]
  18. ‘Our Weekly Gossip’, The Athenaeum No. 1,791, 22 February 1862, p. 262. [return to text]
  19. Harmsworth’s Magazine Vol. 3, 1900. Daniel Maclise had painted the most famous portrait of Dickens in 1839. [return to text]
  20. Joseph Johnson. Clever Boys of Our Time, and how they became famous men (Drayton & Co., 1861). The illuminated frontispiece was by Samuel Stanesby. I have seen only the third and fourth editions; the photograph may have appeared in the first and second editions. [return to text]
  21. Carte-de-visite photograph by J.J.E. Mayall. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. [return to text]
  22. Carte-de-visite taken around the early 1860s. [return to text]
  23. Quoted in Lillian Nayder, The Other Dickens: A Life of Catherine Hogarth (c.2011) p. 332, which cites the letter concerning Mayall losing the negative of the dead son Sydney. A studio photograph of Sydney taken about 1860 survives, but I have not been able establish whether this was by Mayall. [return to text]
  24. Andrew Xavier stated in his 2005 lecture to Gresham College, ‘He doesn’t like to be portrayed in profile … he’s got this rather weak chin’. [return to text]
  25. Dickens would later be photographed in America, c.1860-65, by Mathew Brady – a copy is held in the US National Archives. [return to text]
  26. John Burns, ‘Irish recluse left fortune in photos’, The Sunday Times, 1 December 2002. [return to text]

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